Critics of contemporary education complain that school systems no longer meet the needs of the 21st century. One of their biggest criticisms is that the paradigm needs to change from teacher-directed instruction to student-centered instruction. Think deeper and it reveals that the demands of this century require not just the rise of progressive reform but a refitting of the roles of teachers and students. A balanced approach where each plays an active role in innovation, engagement, and invention. Student-centered learning: Friday’s Class defines student-centered learning as learning where “the focus is shifted from the teacher to the students.” Student centered learning methods include active learning, cooperative learning, and inductive teaching and learning. The student is the most important component of the equation, on all levels.” Teacher-centered learning: While it’s difficult in today’s materials to find a definition that speaks to a positive perspective, a definition from EduGAINS, a website for Ontario schools, comes closest: “explicitly teaching [mathematical] rules, concepts, principles, and problem-solving strategies. This often includes modeling a variety of examples and guiding students during their review and practice.” While teacher-directed instruction has recently enjoyed a stronghold on many school systems, progressive education with its core of student-centered learning got its start in the 16th century with John Amos Comenius in Moravia, “the proper education of the young does not consist in stuffing their minds with a mass of words, sentences, and ideas; but in opening their understanding to the outer world.” In the centuries that followed, other like-minded educational philosophers such as Rousseau, Froebel, and Pestalozzi addressed the issue of the essential intent of education: to fill each child’s mind with facts, concepts, and rules or to create an environment where each child explores, constructs meaning, and actively participates in the learning experience. The 20th century see-sawed between the two, moving from the progressive philosophies of educators such as Dewey, Freire, and Pratt to the more bureaucratic ideology of using education to drive uniformity of thinking and a strong industrial economy. The 21st-century requirements for life and career are restoring and expanding the tenets of progressive education. Innovation, research, communication, integration of disciplines, collaboration, and technical savvy all rank higher than fitting in and passively acquiring data. These depend on higher order critical and creative thinking skills.